First, a little linguistics lesson. If you want, you can skip to the last two paragraphs.
Hebrew doesn’t have tenses the way English does. Hebrew has aspect. Aspect has to do with whether what the verb describes is over with or not. The perfective aspect translates pretty easily into our simple past (He ran). After all, if an action is over with, it’s in the past, right? And the imperfective aspect goes pretty well with our present progressive (He is running). (Greek has a past tense called the aorist that has this perfective aspect, equivalent to our simple past; and an imperfective past tense equivalent to our past progressive, “He was running.”) Here are a few examples:
Hebrew: katal—English: he killed. Hebrew: okal (pronounced okayl)—English: he is eating. Hebrew doesn’t have a way to say “he eats.” (As far as I know, but we translate it that way a lot.)
We have aspect in English, too but we don’t usually call it that—partly, I suppose, because we have some verb forms that don’t quite fit. Some of our verb forms do, though. Our simple past fits into the perfective aspect, too. And the progressive tenses are all imperfective regardless of when they happen. I am running and I was running are both imperfective.
All that to introduce today’s lesson, how to use the past perfect and present perfect tenses, which show both aspects!
The last two paragraphs:
1. The past perfect says that something was done and then ended in the past.
He had entertained thoughts of being the winner until he saw the score.
The trick to using the past perfect is you need to make some indication of when the deed ended, not just when it happened. In this case, it’s the phrase “until he saw the score.” Here’s the rule: if you don’t state or clearly imply when the deed ended, use the simple past. For example, “Yesterday he entertained thoughts of winning.” You’re saying when he did it, but not when he stopped. Simple past. Let’s turn the rule around: If you use the past perfect, indicate when the deed ended.
2. The present perfect means that something began in the past and continues until now.
He has entertained thoughts of winning ever since he began training. Also: Ever since he began training, he has entertained thoughts of winning.
The trick with the present perfect is that you need to indicate when the deed started. In this case, it’s the phrase “ever since he started training.” If you don’t give an indication of when it started, consider rewriting your sentence.
I won’t get into the perfect progressive tenses, which emphasize the imperfective aspect even more. (“He has been entertaining” and “He had been entertaining,” if you’re curious.)
And we’ll save the future perfect for a future post.